Sopel tutorial, Part 3: Memory and URL info functions
NOTE: This guide is for Sopel 6.0+. If you are still using a version named “Willie”, we strongly encourage you to upgrade, as such old versions are no longer supported.
Communicating safely between plugins can be very useful. Sopel provides for this with its memory system. The intended use is for when you have volatile information which needs to be quickly and safely accessed and updated while the bot is running. In this part of the guide, we’re going to cover how to use it.
The bot object that gets passed to callables has the attribute
works exactly like a plain old dict. (It’s really a
SopelMemory object, but
true to form, you don’t need to worry about how that works.) To see if a key
is in the bot’s memory you use
key in bot.memory, exactly like a plain old
dict. If you want to access that key, you use
bot.memory[key], exactly like
a plain old dict. Keys can be strings (usually), but also numbers, tuples,
etc., exactly like a plain old dict.
If you said “exactly like a plain old dict” before reading it just now, you’re definitely ready for an example.
Sample use: Keeping track of the last URL
One frequent use of memory is to keep track of the last URL that was seen in a
channel. The bot currently ships with a
.title command , found in
which will give the title or other URL information on the last URL posted in
the channel. The
url.py plugin knows how to keep track of urls that other
people say, but what about when Sopel itself says a URL, like as the result of
.duck command in
search.py, which gives the first link from a
DuckDuckGo search of a given query? The answer is to put that link into memory.
What different memory keys exist and are used for is entirely by convention;
the API spells out no special rules here. However, one of the ones used by the
plugins the bot ships with is
last_seen_url which, as you’d expect, contains
the last seen URL. The key itself is a Python dict of channel names to the
last URL seen in that channel. So when the
.duck command wants to update it,
it uses code like this:
if 'last_seen_url' not in bot.memory: bot.memory['last_seen_url'] = SopelMemory() bot.memory['last_seen_url'][trigger.sender] = url
trigger.sender, as you’ll recall, is the channel (or nick, if a PM)
the message came from, and
url is the result from the search.
URL info functions
One of the things Sopel supports is advanced URL information. For example, Sopel can respond to a link to a YouTube video with not just the title, but the uploader, the time it was uploaded, the duration, and more. Here’s how it works. We only need to see four lines of it to get the gist; the rest is just retrieving the information from YouTube.
@url(r"https?://(?:www\.)?(youtube\.com/watch\S*v=|youtu\.be/)([\w-]+)") def ytinfo(bot, trigger, match): vid_id = match.group(2) #stuff
The first line gives Sopel a regex for URLs this function will handle - here
we match both youtube.com and youtu.be links. The second line will seem a
bit unusual compared to
@command callables because of its third
argument. When Sopel is calling this function, it will provide the regular
expression match object in this third argument.
Want to learn about how to document (and test!) your plugin’s commands? Continue to part 4!